Mother Pelican
Meditations on Man and Woman, Humanity and Nature

Luis T. Gutiérrez
Index Page


Meditation Seeking Understanding ~ Sacraments

These pages are meditations on the mysteries of the creation, the incarnation, and the redemption. They explore the Christian understanding that all men and women are consubstantial in one and the same human nature, and are consubstantial with Jesus Christ as to his humanity. The meditations are based on a layman's reading of the Sacred Bible, the Catechism of the Catholic Church, and the Theology of the Body as they pertain to the egalitarian complementarity of man and woman, which transcends the patriarchal binary of mutually exclusive male-female opposites. This understanding of the complementary equality of man and woman applies to all the sacraments, sheds light on the great nuptial mystery of Christ and the Church, and would seem to support the ordination of women to the ministerial priesthood and the episcopate.

Sacramental Complementarity of Man and Woman

Working Draft - 5 February 2016


In the Catholic Church, the resistance to the ordination of women is rooted in a sacramental theology that conflates the patriarchal gender binary with biblical revelation. This is a meditation on human nature, male and female, as it pertains to the sacramental priesthood of the New Law when unconstrained by the patriarchal priesthood of the Old Law. This is a visceral issue that cannot not be settled by reasoning alone. This page attempts to support prayerful discernment by stepping outside of the patriarchal box and reconsidering the issue in light of the deposit of faith and the signs of the times.

On the transition from the Old Law to the New Law:

"The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us."
Gospel of John 1:14

"Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, the new creation has come:
The old has gone, the new is here!"
2 Corinthians 5:17

"There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is
there male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus."
Galatians 3:28

Acronyms and Links:

Catechism of the Catholic Church
Compendium of Catholic Social Doctrine
Theology of the Body


Creation of the First Human Person and Subsequent Sexual Differentiation
Genesis 1:26-27; 2:7, 23; 3:16; 5:1-2; CCC 371, 372, 383; TOB 2:4, 3:2, 4:2, 8:1, 8:4, 9:2
Image: Cappella Palatina, Palermo, Italy

"Before creating anything, God loved."
Pope Francis, Lessons for Children

Point 1: In the beginning, man and woman were created as rational living beings composed of body and soul in the unity of the same flesh. Thus having a body, as well as having a soul, is determinative of human personhood. The body is normally male or female. Humanity was created male and female. All human beings, male and female, are consubstantial, i.e., share one and the same human nature. All men and women are fully homogeneous, not only somatically but in their "whole being."

Point 2: The complementarity of man and woman does not cancel their full equality as human persons. The man and the woman are made of the same matter, the same dust, the same "stuff," the same flesh. The egalitarian complementarity of man and woman is ordered to unity, procreation, and the communion of persons in God's image, not to male domination and female submission as in the patriarchal binary that emerged from original sin but has been overcome by the redemption.

It is noteworthy that Hebrew is a patriarchal language that has no neuter gender; everything is binary, male *or* female. But biblical revelation circumvents this linguistic limitation. In biblical language, "flesh" means "human being." The man and the woman are of the same flesh: different physical characteristics, same personhood. For this reason, in the TOB, the "male or female" descriptor is always used in reference to the human being as a body, while "male and female" is always used in reference to the human being as a person.


The New Eve, Mother of God, Mother of Christ-Church
Luke 1:38; John 1:14; Galatians 4:4; Ephesians 5:27; CCC 773, 973; TOB 21:5-6; 97:2, 102:4
Image: Icon of the Inexhaustible Chalice - Wikipedia

Jesus is the "Son of Man," but was the divine "Son of God" a male before the incarnation? For the redemption and the sacramental economy, is the human masculinity of Jesus more important than the color of his eyes?

Point 1: God assumed human nature when Mary accepted her unique vocation to be the mother of Jesus. In Mary, the Eternal Word became flesh, as flesh of her flesh. Thus Mary preceded the entire sacramental economy. She who had never been baptized, by her fiat became the Mother of God. In Mary, the Old Law was fulfilled by being turned upside down and inside out. In her womb, the omnipotent God became the most vulnerable Servant of the New Law.

Point 2: The Holy Family was not a patriarchy, thus revealing that the Holy Trinity is not a patriarchy. Jesus would never identified himself as a patriarch, thus revealing that his spousal love for the Church is not essentially patriarchal. Jesus Christ is head of the Church because he is a divine Person and our Redeemer in the flesh, not because he is a human male. Mary is the type of the Church, the type of humanity; she is the sinless bride that preceded sinful humanity, and a Church of baptized sinners, in the nuptial communion of the sacramental economy.

The eternal Word, "eternally begotten," became flesh, in a human body, by an act of God, not by an act of man, even though Mary was the consenting "handmaid of the Lord." It was no accident that he was born a male under the Old Law, in a patriarchal society, for God comes to us where we are; but otherwise his masculinity is utterly incidental for the redemption and the sacramental economy.


The Redemption of the Body, Male and Female
Mark 16:3; Luke 2:52; John 4:27, 16:12-13; Galatians 3:28; CCC 26ff, 1066ff, 1691ff; TOB 31:2
Image: Called to Communion

Point 1: All the mysteries of the life of Christ, from the Annunciation to the Ascension, are made visible in the flesh of a concrete human being, Jesus of Nazareth, who lived in one place, at one time, in one family, in one culture. He grew up as the son of his parents, worked for a living, went around doing good and planting the seeds of the God's kingdom as best he could, challenged his culture without imposing anything that people could not understand, had male and female friends who became disciples, had male and female detractors, and died as a servant king but rose as the Servant King. He chose celibacy for the sake of the kingdom and by choice never became a father, but would not have been able to be a mother; for sexual differentiation is a gift but also a limitation of the human condition. Jesus was God in time and space, yet like us in all things but sin.

Point 2: The first millennium of the Christian era was spent defining the Creed and the "one person, two natures" Christological dogmas. The second millennium was spent defining the sacraments and the Marian dogmas that prefigure the Church. Perhaps the third millennium will be about understanding the great nuptial mystery of Christ and the Church, and further embracing the tripod of redemptive fruits he gained for us: the transition from the Old Law to the New Law, the emancipation from all forms of slavery, and the restoration of male-female communion. But the patriarchal binary is the stone that still blocks the entrance to the tomb, and this imbalance of male domination and female submission must be corrected during the "already, but not yet" time window of the pilgrim Church that goes from Pentecost to his second coming in glory.

Before the redemption, under the patriarchal Old Law, integral human development was constrained by rivalry between man and woman. After the redemption, under the New Law, integral human development can flourish in the restored unity of man and woman. But there is no such thing as integral human development in Christ that is exclusively male or exclusively female. In our "already/not yet," it is time to give top priority to the third leg of the Pauline tripod!


The Nuptial Covenant ~ Analogy of the Bridegroom and the Bride ~ A Great Mystery
Genesis 2:24; Matthew 16:19, 18:18, 19:4-5; Acts 15:28; Ephesians 5:21-33; CCC 796, 802-810, 1616; TOB 1:3, 2:1, 8:1, 19:5, 33:3, 87:2-3, 91:1, 93:6, 97:2, 99:2, 102:1
Image: Biblical Hebrew Studies

Point 1: When Jesus gave the power of the keys to Peter, he was submitting to the will of the Church on earth. This is a great mystery (mysterium magnum) and may be the most beautiful and most misunderstood mystery of the Christian faith. He who is Priest, Prophet, and King, as well as Victim, voluntarily entrusted the continuation of his mission to the Church and gave her the power, wisdom, and authority to sacramentally bring the Good News to all nations.

Point 2: The old nuptial covenant between God and Israel now becomes a new covenant between Christ and the Church, who becomes one flesh with Christ and the great sacrament (sacramentum magnum) of divine mercy in this world. It is a nuptial mystery that encapsulates the primordial sacrament of male-female unity in one flesh but also reveals that there is a Christ-Church unity that points to a God-Human unity (theosis) as the ultimate goal of evangelization until the Lord returns in glory.

Point 3: The spousal meaning of the body, both the human body and the Church as the body of Christ, is by no means limited to a superficial patriarchal interpretation of the bridegroom-bride analogy. The spousal bond of Christ-Head and Church-Body radically transcends the patriarchal binary of male domination and female subordination. Jesus Christ is head of the Church because he is a divine Person and our Redeemer in the flesh, not because he is a human male. This nuptial meaning of the Christ-Church mystery as a communion of persons, in the image of the Trinity, applies to all the sacraments.

QUESTION: The human body is normally male or female, but humanity is male and female. The eternal Word was not a male before the incarnation. After the redemption, there is a radically new covenant between God and humanity, signified by the nuptial Christ-Church covenant, the mystery of the Church as the body of Christ. But, if Christ's body includes the entire people of God, male and female, why should the headship of the pilgrim Church be exclusively male?


Christ-Church, a Communion of Persons, Male and Female:
Head and Body, Father and Mother, Son and Daughter, Brother and Sister

Psalm 8:4–6; Matthew 16:19, 18:18; John 1:1-14, 6:48-58, 16:12-13; Acts 15:28; Galatians 3:28; Philippians 2:7-8; Colossians 1:15-20; Hebrews 10:10; Acts 15:28; CCC 239, 242, 248, 262, 370, 467, 685, 703, 1577, 1598, 2789; TOB 1:3, 2:4, 3:2, 4:2, 8:1-4, 13:1, 19:2-5, 21:6, 25:2, 31:3, 33:2-4, 35:5, 41:1, 58:2, 59:4, 65:3, 66:2-4, 67:3, 69:4-8, 70:5-7, 75:3, 76:5-6, 78:5, 79:9, 80:1, 81:4, 86:4, 87:5, 89:3-8, 90:1-6, 91:3, 92:6, 93:5-6, 94:5, 95:2, 95b:1, 96:5,7; 97:5, 99:2, 102:4-7, 104:4-5, 114:8, 115:6, 116:5, 117:5, 117b:2, 6, 121:1-3, 122:1-2, 123:7, 124:1, 126:2, 129:2-5, 130:5, 133:3
Image: The Christian Post

Points to be considered:

  • HEAD & BODY ~ The sacramental economy radically transcends the patriarchal differentiation of man and woman. The eternal Word was not a male before the incarnation. His maleness is part of God assuming all the limitations of embodied humanity (the human body is either male or female), and consistent with the divine pedagogy of coming to use where we are; if incarnated as a woman, Jesus could not have been a rabbi without hosts of angels opening the doors of the synagogue for him). All human beings, male and female, are homogeneous in their "whole being."
  • Our Lord Jesus Christ is the head of the Church because he is a divine Person and our Redeemer in the flesh, not because he is a human male. The head of the human body is of the same flesh, somatically homogeneous with other parts of the body. Any baptized person, male or female, is an "icon of Christ" and can be ordained to act in persona Christi capitis.

  • UNITY IN DIVERSITY ~ There is no such thing as two human natures, one that is male and one that is female. All humans, and therefore all the baptized, are somatically homogeneous and consubstantial in their whole being, their redeemed bodies being of the same flesh and making visible their souls as images of God; and their essential unity in one and the same human nature, and full equality in personhood, subsists intact regardless of sexual differentiation or any other pyschosomatic differences.
  • The patriarchal binary is a cultural artifice concocted after original sin; it is not natural law, let alone divine law.

  • BODY SACRAMENTALITY ~ For the redemption, what matters is that God assumed a human body ("This is my body"). Sexual differentiation is a gift but is also a limitation of the human condition. Jesus is "like us in all things but sin". For the sacramental economy, the masculinity of Jesus is as incidental as the color of his eyes. This applies to all the sacraments, including the ministerial priesthood. The exclusively male priesthood is patriarchal heritage received from the Old Law that has yet to be discarded under the New Law.
  • N.B. It is significant that Jesus never identified himself as a patriarch. He identified himself as a human being ("son of man") and explicitly declared the sacramentality of his body and blood without any limitation to masculinity or any other psychosomatic trait of his concrete historical incarnation:
    "This is my body ... This is my blood ..."
    "I am the living bread ... This bread is my flesh ..."
    "Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood ..."

    FLESH, BLOOD... HUMAN FLESH, HUMAN BLOOD... in the words of Christ, there is no trace of testicular sacramental theology. During his public ministry, he was under the patriarchal prohibitions of the Old Law, but it is clear he never intended such prohibitions to be enforced under the New Law after his death and resurrection, and gave the Church the power of the keys to lift them in due time. Just as male circumcision is not a prerequisite for baptism, male genitalia is not a prerequisite for ordination to the ministerial priesthood of the New Law.

  • HUMAN LANGUAGE ~ Hebrew is a language that has no neuter gender, everything is binary, male *or* female, but we know that "God is Love." "God the Father" is not exclusively male. "God the Son" was the Eternal Word before the incarnation, and not exclusively male. "God the Holy Spirit" is not exclusively male. The Trinity is a communion of divine persons, not a patriarchy. The Holy Family was not a patriarchy. Jesus never identified himself as a patriarch.
  • The Church is "one, holy, catholic, and apostolic," but is not essentially patriarchal. Families are evolving from sole male headship to joint male-female (father-mother) headship. This is an undeniable sign of the times. The patriarchal language that obscures biblical texts and magisterial teachings is now becoming an obstacle to grace. Why should the Church remain imprisoned in the same patriarchal box that Jesus had to deal with during this earthly ministry to the people of Israel?

  • MARY THEOTOKOS ~ Mary preceded the sacramental economy, and hers was a unique and unrepeatable ministerial vocation (Mother of God) that does not preclude the ordination of baptized women. She is a human person, not a divine person. Priests and bishops are human persons, not divine persons. If a female human person can be the Mother of God, a female human person can be a member of the Church hierarchy.
  • Mary was "ordained" by the Holy Spirit when she gave her consent at the Annunciation. It is a fallacy to say that women cannot be priests because the Blessed Virgin Mary was not sacramentally ordained by the imposition of hands.

  • THE 12 APOSTLES ~ In choosing 12 males to represent the patriarchs of the 12 tribes of Israel, Jesus was acting within the limits of his mision to patriarchal Israel and what his disciples could understand. It was a very sensible pre-Easter choice (cf. John 4:27, 16:12), but it is irrational to infer that Jesus intended his choice of 12 males to be normative after the resurrection and Pentecost, and until his return in glory at the end of time.
  • QUESTION: Would Jesus make the same choice for the Church of the 21st century?

  • CHURCH AUTHORITY ~ The male-only priesthood is a choice the Church makes, not a dogma of the Catholic faith; and the Church, by the power of the keys, has the authority to ordain women as soon as it is recognized that the patriarchal binary is an obstacle to evangelization in a post patriarchal world.
  • QUESTION: Nobody can demand ordination, but can anyone seriously deny that some women (especially, some nuns!) have the "signs of the priesthood," i.e., a desire to do priestly work for the glory of God and the good of souls, as well as health, the intellectual ability, and the strength of character required for the ministerial priesthood?

  • SACRAMENTAL COMPLEMENTARITY ~ Humanity is male and female. Just as man and woman complement each other in the sacrament of marriage, they also complement each other in all the sacraments, including Holy Orders. Apostolic succession is not contingent on masculinity.

    Cartoon by Kirk Anderson, 1994
    N.B. The dogmatic definition on the institution of the ministerial priesthood (Council of Trent) does not mention a masculinity requirement for ordination. The declaration Inter Insegnores (CDF, 1976) was a doctrinal disgrace, published in response to the Church of England's discernment process pursuant to the ordination of women to the priesthood. The apostolic letter Ordinatio Sacerdotalis (St. John Paul II, 1994) was an edict published in response to the Church of England's decision to start ordaining women to the priesthood, and is an authoritative decision to stop discussion of the issue in the Roman Catholic Church for the time being, but is not an infallible definition of the patriarchal (male-only) priesthood as a divinely revealed dogma. It is addressed to the bishops, not the entire Church. It is entirely written in past and present tense, and says nothing about what the Church can or cannot do in the future. The letter is another "definitive" confirmation of the hierarchical constitution of the Church to safeguard apostolic succession, but does not preclude the hierarchy from ever ceasing to be a patriarchy. This papal edict was a tragedy that subsequently became a travesty when the CDF started pushing it as an infallible teaching, and many people are still being intimidated into thinking that it was an infallible definition of a divinely revealed dogma. Undoubtedly published with the best intention to buy time for the good of the Church until a better answer is articulated and absorbed by the faithful, it upholds the simplistic patriarchal rationalization of the pre-Easter choice of the 12 male apostles at the expense of the post-Easter sacramental economy, and will not stand the test of time. Thankfully, the same mistake has not been repeated in response to the Church of England's recent decision to start ordaining women to the episcopate. The Catechism of the Catholic Church (#1598) plainly states that ordaining only males is a choice (first sentence) and who can make the choice (second sentence). In matters related to apostolic succession, it is time to test everything, keep what is good, and let go of what is no longer good. (Cf. 1 Thessalonians 5:21)

    Once the artificiality of the patriarchal gender binary and the naturally egalitarian complementarity of man and woman are recognized, there is absolutely no dogmatic impediment to the ordination of women to the priesthood and the episcopate.

  • DISCERNMENT ~ Further enriching the hierarchy with the sacramental complementarity of man and woman would be more conducive to integral human development as well as an integral ecology. The patriarchal family is passing away, and the patriarchal hierarchy of the Church is becoming an obstacle to grace and the mission of evangelization.
  • Here and now, the ordination of women to the priesthood and the episcopate would be for the greater glory of God and the good of souls (Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam Et Bonum Animarum).


    This meditation does not attempt to "prove" anything. It is a personal reflection about a visceral issue that cannot be resolved by reasoning alone, and prayerful discernment of Christ's will is required. The truth is timeless, but the Church's understanding of the truth is not timeless; the faith is always the same but the Holy Spirit enables the Church to bring out of the deposit of faith what is new and what is old (cf. Matthew 13:52).

    Lord, grant me the serenity to accept what I cannot change,
    The courage to change what I should change,
    And the wisdom to know the difference.

    Mary, Mother of the Church and Untier of Knots, pray for us.

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